Python 3 Text Processing with NLTK 3 Cookbook

Python Text Processing with NLTK 3 Cookbook

After many weekend writing sessions, the 2nd edition of the NLTK Cookbook, updated for NLTK 3 and Python 3, is available at Amazon and Packt. Code for the book is on github at nltk3-cookbook. Here’s some details on the changes & updates in the 2nd edition:

First off, all the code in the book is for Python 3 and NLTK 3. Most of it should work for Python 2, but not all of it. And NLTK 3 has made many backwards incompatible changes since version 2.0.4. One of the nice things about Python 3 is that it’s unicode all the way. No more issues with ASCII versus unicode strings. However, you do have to deal with byte strings in a few cases. Another interesting change is that hash randomization is on by default, which means that if you don’t set the PYTHONHASHSEED environment variable, training accuracy can change slightly on each run, because the iteration order of dictionaries is no longer consistent by default.

In Chapter 1, Tokenizing Text and WordNet Basics, I added a recipe for training a sentence tokenizer using the PunktSentenceTokenizer. This is surprisingly easy, and you can find the code in

Chapter 2, Replacing and Correcting Words, shows the additional languages supported by the SnowballStemmer. An unfortunate removal from this chapter is babelizer, which was a fun library to use, but is no longer supported by Yahoo.

NLTK 3 replaced simplify_tags with universal tagset mappings, so I updated Chapter 3, Creating Custom Corpora to show how to use these tagset mappings to get the universal tags.

In Chapter 4, Part-of-Speech Tagging, the last recipe shows how to use from NLTK-Trainer to replicate most of the tagger training recipes detailed earlier in the chapter. NLTK-Trainer was largely inspired by my experience writing Python Text Processing with NLTK 2.0 Cookbook, after realizing that many aspects of training part-of-speech taggers could be encapsulated in a command line script.

Chapter 5, Extracing Chunks, adds examples for using to train phrase chunkers.

Chapter 7, Text Classification, adds coverage of, along with examples of using the SklearnClassifier, which provides access to many of the scikit-learn classification algorithms. The scikit-learn classifiers tend to be at least as accurate as NLTK’s classifiers, are often faster to train, and have much smaller memory & disk footprints. And since NLTK 3 removed support for scipy based MaxentClassifier algorithms and SVM classifiers, the choice of which classifers to use has become very easy: when in doubt, choose SklearnClassifier (code examples can be found in

There are a few library changes in Chapter 9, Parsing Specific Data Types:

  • timex and SimpleParse recipes have been removed due to lack of Python 3 compatibility
  • uses beautifulsoup4 with examples of UnicodeDammit
  • chardet was replaced with charade, which is compatible with both Python 2 & 3. But since publication, charade was merged back into chardet and is no longer maintained. I recommend installing chardet and replacing all instances of the charade module name with chardet.

So if you want to learn the latest & greatest NLTK 3, pickup your copy of Python 3 Text Processing with NLTK 3 Cookbook, and checkout the code at nltk3-cookbook. If you like the book, please review it at Amazon or goodreads.